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东北大学
大学章程的历史演进

DAXUEZHANGCHENGSHIDAXUEYIFAZIZHUBANXUE、SHISHIGUANLIHELVXINGGONGGONGZHINENGDEJIBENZHUNZE,SHIJIZAIDAXUEGENBENSHIXIANGDEGUIFANXINGWENJIAN。TASHANGCHENGGUOJIAFALVGUIFAN,XIAQINEIBUGUIZHANGZHIDU,ZHANGXIANZHEDAXUEDEDULIFARENDIWEIHESHIMING,CHENGZAIZHEDAXUEWENHUAHEJINGSHEN。TONGGUOSHULIDAXUEZHANGCHENGDELISHIYANJIN,LEJIE“DAXUEZHANGCHENGCONGNALILAI、ZENMEZOU、ZHUNBEIXIANGHECHUQU”DENGJIBENWENTI,DUIYUKUODAZHANGCHENGYINGXIANG、NINGJUGUANGFANGONGSHI、JIANSHEGAOSHUIPINGXIANDAIDAXUEJUYOUZHONGYAOXIANSHIYIYI。

一、高等教育发展进程中的大学章程

YIBANRENWEI,SHIJIEGAODENGJIAOYUFAZHANJINCHENGYOU3GEZHONGYAOBIAOZHIXINGJIEDIAN,DIYIGEJIUSHIYIXUESHENGWEIZHONGXINDEZAOQIXIFANGDAXUE。BOLUONIYADAXUEJIANLIYU1088NIAN,BEIYUWEIOUZHOU“DAXUEZHIMU”,ZAITAJIANLIDE70NIANHOUJI1158NIAN,HUANGDIBANBUFALINGCHENGRENBOLUONIYADAXUEDEDULIDIWEI,XUESHENGTUANTIHUODEGEXIANGTEQUAN,RUZUZHIXINGHUIDEQUANLI、MIANJIAOSHIZHENGSHUIDEQUANLIDENG。TONGYANG,BALIDAXUEZAICHENGLI65NIANHOU,JI1215NIAN,JIAOHUANGBANFATEXUZHUANGQUXIAOLEBALISHENGMUYUANDUIBALIDAXUEDEKONGZHIQUAN,BALIDAXUEQUDEXINGHUISHITEXUQUANBINGCHENGWEIZIZHIJIGOU。JIAOSHITUANTIKEZIXINGJUEDINGJIAOXUEFANGFA,KEZHIDINGNEIBUGUIZEZUOWEITEXUZHUANGDEBUCHONGTIAOKUAN。TEXUZHUANGHAIDUISHISHENGDEZEREN、JIAOSHIHOUXUANRENDETIAOJIANYIJIKAOSHIZHIDUDENGZUOCHULEXIANGYINGGUIDING。1167NIANNIUJINDAXUECHENGLI,87NIANHOU,JI1254NIAN,JIAOHUANGXIANGNIUJINDAXUEBANFATEXUZHUANG。TEXUZHUANGGUIDINGLEZHENGFURUHEJIERUDAXUEZHILI,SHEHUIRUHECANYUDAXUEZHILI,DAXUERUHEZAISHIYINGSHEHUIFAZHANYAOQIUHEBAOCHIDAXUEZIZHI、XUESHUZIYOUZHONGQUDEPINGHENGDENG。

SUIZHEGAODENGJIAOYUDEFAZHAN,JIAOXUEKEYANCHENGWEIDAXUEDEZHONGYAOGONGNENG。1810NIANWEILIAN·FENG·HONGBAOCHUANGBANLEBOLINHONGBAODAXUE,QIANGDIAO“JIAOXUEYUKEYANXIANGTONGYI”DEBANXUELINIAN,CHENGWEIGAODENGJIAOYUFAZHANJINCHENGDEDIERGEZHONGYAOJIEDIAN。1817NIAN,YOUSHILAIERMAHEQICAODE《BOLINHONGBAODAXUEZHANGCHENG》ZUOWEI“YONGJIUZHANGCHENG”DEDAOLEGUOWANGDEPIZHUN,GAIZHANGCHENGWEIBOLINHONGBAODAXUEDEBANXUEDIANDINGLEJIBENKUANGJIA,ZHUYAOBAOKUO:XUEYUANZHI、JIAOSHIDENGJIZHI、JIAOSHOUHUIZHI、JIANGZUOZHI、LIYISHANGTANZHI,XUESHUZIYOUHEDAXUEZIZHIYOUCICHENGWEIXIANDAIDAXUEZHIDUDELIANGGEJISHI。

DISANGEJIEDIANSHIGENGQIANGDIAOXUEWEISUOYONGDEMEIGUODAXUE。YELUDAXUECHENGLIYU1701,SHIMEIGUOZHUMINGDESILIDAXUE,QIZHILIZHUYAOYOUSANGEWENJIANLAIZHIDAO:YISHI1701NIANYELUXUEYUANDETEXUZHUANG,BAOKUODAXUEMINGCHENG、DIDIAN、QUANLI、DONGSHIHUICHENGYUANDESHULIANG、CHANSHENGFANGSHIDENG;ERSHIYELUXUEYUANXIANZHANG,YU1745NIANBANXING,ZHUYAOBAOHANDAXUEDEZUZHIJIEGOU、JIAOSHIPINREN、XUESHENGZHUCE、XIAOYOUHUIDENGFANGMIANNEIRONG,SHIYELUDAXUEZHILIJIEGOUDEKUANGJIA;SANSHICHENGXINGYU1792NIANBINGBUDUANXIUDINGZHONGDEBUCHONGTIAOKUAN,BAOKUOLEYIXILIEZHENGCEHEXIZE,YONGYULIJIEHECHULIDAXUEDEYIXIEJUTISHIWU。1817NIAN,MIXIEGENDAXUEYOUZHOUYIHUITONGGUOLIFAERJIANLI,TONGGUODONGSHIHUIZHIDU,MINGQUEZHENGFUYUXUEXIAODEQUANZEBIANJIE,ZAITEXUZHUANGDEJICHUSHANGZHUBUYANHUAHEPAISHENGCHUXINGSHIDUOYANG、NEIRONGDUOYUANDEDAXUEZHANGCHENG。

CONGDAXUEDEFAZHANJINCHENGKAN,ZAOQIXIFANGDAXUEXINGCHENGSHIBINGMEIYOUDAXUEZHANGCHENG,ZHANGCHENGSHIYINXUEXIAO“ZIZHU”ERCHANSHENGDE,JIEDINGLEDAXUEYUWAIBUSHEHUI(ZHUYAOSHIJIAOHUI、WANGSHI、ZHENGFU)DEQUANLIYUYIWUGUANXI,GUIFANLEDAXUENEIBUDEQUANLIBIANJIEHEYUNXINGGUIZE。DAXUEZHANGCHENGDEXINGCHENGHEBANBUDUIDAXUEFAZHANERYANDOUSHIZHONGYAODESHIJIANJIEDIAN。DAXUEZHANGCHENGZHONGMINGQUEDEHEXINYAOSUZAITUIDONGDAXUEFAZHANJINCHENGZHONGQIDAOLEGUANJIANXINGZUOYONG,SHIXIANDAIDAXUEZHIDUZHONGDESHOUYAOWENBEN。JUTIERYAN,GUOWAIDAXUEZHANGCHENGDETEDIANKEZONGJIEWEI:

YISHITUCHUBANXUELINIAN。DAXUELINIANSHIYISUODAXUEDE“JINGQISHEN”,ZUINENGFANYINGCHUTADELISHICHUANTONG、JINGSHENDIYUNHEJIAZHIZHUIQIU。

ERSHITIXIANGUANBANFENLI。“ZHENGXIAOFENKAI、GUANBANFENLI”SHIXIANDAIDAXUEZHIDUDEJIBENYUANZE,ZHEISHILUOSHIDAXUEFARENDIWEI、BAOZHANGDAXUEZIWOGUANLI、BIMIANWAIBUHENGJIAGANYUDEKEGUANXUYAO。DAXUEZHANGCHENGZUIZHONGYAODEGONGNENGSHIHUADINGZHENGFUQUANLIBIANJIEHEDAXUEZIZHIFANWEI。

SANSHIJUECEZHIXINGFENLI。JUECEZHIXINGFENLISHIXIANDAIDAXUENEIBUZHILIDEZHONGYAOYUANZE,TIXIANZAIZHILIJIAGOUZHONGJIUSHIYOUDONGSHIHUIFUZEDAXUEJUECE,XIAOZHANGWEISHOUDEXINGZHENGTUANDUIFUZEGUANCHEZHIXING。

SISHISHISHIMINZHUGUANLI。“XUEZHECANYU、MINZHUJUECE”SHIGUANLIDAXUESHIWUYOUQISHIDAXUEXUESHUSHIWUDEPUBIANZUOFA,XUESHUPINGYIHUI、XUESHUWEIYUANHUISHIMINZHUGUANLIDEZHUYAOXINGSHI。

二、国内近代大学章程脉络中国近代高等教育是伴随着大学章程一同起始的。清朝引进近代教育之后,各学堂普遍立有章程

1895NIAN,SHENGXUANHUAICAONI《NISHETIANJINZHONGXIXUETANGZHANGCHENGBING(FUZHANGCHENG、GONGKE)》,SHIXIANCUNGAOXIAOZHONGXIAOSHIZUIZHANGDETIANJINDAXUEDECHUANGXIAOWENXIAN。1898NIAN,LIANGQICHAOQICAO《ZOUNIJINGSHIDAXUETANGZHANGCHENG》,TICHUJINGSHIDAXUETANG“GESHENGZHIBIAOLV,WANGUOSUOZHANYANG”DESHIJIEYILIUDAXUEDEMUBIAO。1902NIAN,ZHANGBAIXIQICAO《QINDINGDAXUETANGZHANGCHENG》,ZHEIGEZHANGCHENGSUIWEISHISHI,DANTICHUJIDIANZHONGYAOBANXUESIXIANG:YISHITICHULEDEZHITIQUANMIANFAZHANDEJIAOYUSIXIANG;ERSHITICHULE“QUANXUE”HE“TONGCAI”DEGAINIAN;SANSHIJIANLIWOGUOGAODENGJIAOYUTIZHI。1904NIAN,ZHANGZHIDONGQICAO《ZOUDINGDAXUETANGZHANGCHENG》,SHOUCITICHULEZAIDAXUETANGNEISHETONGRUYUANJIYANJIUSHENGYUANDEZHUZHANG,BINGDUIGEFENKEDAXUEHETONGRUYUANDEXUEXINIANXIANZUOLEGUIDING,QIBIAOZHIZHEHANGAIYOUXUEQIANJIAOYUDAOYANJIUSHENGCENGCIDEZHONGGUOXIANDAIDAXUEZHIDUZHENGSHIQUELIHEYANXUQIANNIANDEKEJUZHIDUBEIZUIZHONGFEICHU。1921NIAN,SHAMENDAXUEZAISHANGHAI《MINGUORIBAO》SHANGFABIAODE《SHAMENDAXUEDAGANG》,JIUSHIZHANGCHENGXINGZHIDEGANGLINGXINGWENJIAN,DUIBANXUEMUDE、JINGFEI、DONGSHIHUI、PINGYIHUI、WEIYUANHUI、ZUZHIXITONGDENGDOUZUOLEGUIDING。

三、中国现代大学章程进程中国大学章程主要经历碎片化、启动和加速推进三个阶段

DIYIJIEDUAN:ZHANGCHENGSUIPIANHUAJIEDUAN20SHIJI50NIANDAICHU,DAGUIMODEYUANXIDIAOZHENG,XINZHONGGUOGAOXIAOTONGCHANGYIJINGMEIYOULEZHANGCHENGDEXINGZHI。DIAOZHENGHOU,GAOXIAOJINGGUODUONIANDEBANXUESHIJIANZIJUEXINGCHENGLEBANXUELINIAN、DINGWEI、ZONGZHIHEMUBIAO,YIJIXIAOXUN、XIAOHUI、XIAOGEDENGZHANGCHENGYUANSU,DANZHEIXIEYUANSUXIANGDUIDULI、LINGSAN,YIBANTONGGUOWENJIAN、QINGSHI、BAOGAODENGJINXINGBIAODA,WENBENXINGSHIBUYIZHI、JUEDINGZHUTIBUTONGYI、QUANZEBIANJIEBUWANZHENG。LIRU,ZHONGGUORENMINJIEFANGJUNJUNSHIGONGCHENGXUEYUANCHENGLIQIAN,NIERONGZHENHESUYUXIANGZHONGYANGJUNWEICHENGSONGLE《GUANYUCHENGLIJUNSHIGONGCHENGXUEYUANDEBAOGAO》,GAIBAOGAOJIUMINGQUELEXIAOMINGXIAOZHI、LINGDAOZHISHU、NEIBUJIGOU、BIANZHIPEIBEI、ZHUANYESHEZHI、ZHAOSHENGGUIMO、XUEYENIANXIANDENGZHANGCHENGYUANSU。MAOZHUXIWEIXUEYUANBANFA《XUNCI》,DUIXUEXIAOBANXUEZONGZHI、PEIYANGMUBIAO(PEIYANGSHENMEYANGDEREN)、KAIFANGBANXUEHEFAYANGCHUANTONG(ZENMEYANGPEIYANGREN)DOUTICHULEMINGQUEYAOQIU。

DIERJIEDUAN:DAXUEZHANGCHENGJIANSHEQIDONG1992NIAN,JIAOYUBU《NEIBUGUANLITIZHIGAIGEDERUOGANYIJIAN》,GUIDINGJIAOYUBUZHIJIEGUANLIDEJIAOYUSHITIJUYOUFARENDIWEI。1995NIAN,《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJIAOYUFA》,MINGQUEXUEXIAOJUYOU“FARENZIGE”,YOUANZHAOZHANGCHENGXINGSHIZIZHUGUANLIDEQUANLI。1998NIAN,《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOGAODENGJIAOYUFA》GUIDING,SHENQINGSHELIGAODENGXUEXIAOYINGDANGXIANGSHENPIJIGUANTIJIAOZHANGCHENGDENGNEIRONG。2010NIAN7YUE,《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIJIAOYUGAIGEYUFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010-2020NIAN)》DISISHITIAOTICHUJIAQIANGZHANGCHENGJIANSHE。2011NIAN11YUE,JIAOYUBUDI31HAOLINGJI《GAODENGXUEXIAOZHANGCHENGZHIDINGZANXINGBANFA》,WEIGAOXIAOZHANGCHENGJIANSHETIGONGLEJUTIZHINAN。

DISANJIEDUAN:JIASUTUIJINJIEDUAN2013NIAN9YUE,《ZHONGYANGBUWEISUOSHUGAODENGXUEXIAOZHANGCHENGJIANSHEXINGDONGJIHUA(2013-2015NIAN)》CHUTAI,JIHUAZI2013NIAN9YUEQISHISHI,2015NIANDIWANCHENG。《JIHUA》YAOQIU,“211GONGCHENG”JIANSHEGAODENGXUEXIAOYUANZESHANGYU2014NIANDIQIANWANCHENGZHANGCHENGZHIDINGGONGZUO。2013NIAN11YUEJIAOYUBUHEZHUNLE《RENMINDAXUEZHANGCHENG》DENG6SUOGAOXIAODAXUEZHANGCHENG,WEIQITAGAOXIAOZHANGCHENGZHIDINGTIGONGLEYANGBAN。DAO2014NIAN10YUE,TONGGUOJIAOYUBUHEZHUNDAXUEZHANGCHENGDEGAOXIAOSHUYIDA32SUO。ZHIDEYITIDESHI,ZHONGDUOGUANSHEGAODENGJIAOYUDEJIBENGUIZHANGZHIDUDECHUTAI,WEIZHANGCHENGJIANSHETIGONGLEKECANZHAOGUIZE。RU2010NIAN8YUEZHONGGONGZHONGYANGCHUTAIDE《ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGPUTONGGAODENGXUEXIAOJICENGZUZHIGONGZUOTIAOLI》、2011NIAN12YUEJIAOYUBUCHUTAIDE《XUEXIAOJIAOZHIGONGDAIBIAODAHUIGUIDING》、2012NIAN11YUEJIAOYUBUCHUTAIDE《QUANMIANTUIJINYIFAZHIXIAOSHISHIGANGYAO》、2014NIAN1YUEJIAOYUBUCHUTAIDE《GAODENGXUEXIAOXUESHUWEIYUANHUIGUICHENG》、2014NIAN5YUEJIAOYUBUCHUTAIDE《GUANYUJIAKUAITUIJINGAODENGXUEXIAOZHANGCHENGZHIDING、HEZHUNYUSHISHIGONGZUODETONGZHI》YIJI2014NIAN6YUECHUTAIDE《GAOXIAOLISHIHUIGUICHENG(ZHENGQIUYIJIANGAO)》。

QIZHONG,JIAOYUBU《GUANYUJIAKUAITUIJINGAODENGXUEXIAOZHANGCHENGZHIDING、HEZHUNYUSHISHIGONGZUODETONGZHI》GUIDING,YAOMINGQUEYIBASHOUQINZIZHUCHIHETUIDONGDAXUEZHANGCHENGJIANSHE,QUEBAOANSHIWANCHENGGONGZUORENWU;YAOBATUIJINZHANGCHENGJIANSHEZUOWEITIXIANXUEXIAOBANXUESHUIPINGHEZHILINENGLI,HENGLIANGLINGDAOBANZIGUANLISHUIPINGHEGAIGEJINGSHENDEZHONGYAOBIAOZHI,NARUGAOXIAOPINGGU、LINGDAOBANZIKAOHEDEZHONGYAONEIRONG;XIAOZHANGYAOZUOWEIZHANGCHENGZHIXINGDEDIYIZERENREN,YAOBAZHANGCHENGZHIXINGQINGKUANG,ZUOWEINIANDUSHUZHIBAOGAODENEIRONG,XIANGJIAOZHIGONGDAIBIAODAHUIZUOZHUANMENBAOGAO。

四、大学章程制定正当其时从中外大学发展的进程看,章程在现代大学的制度建设中具有统领发展方向、明确发展定位的决定性作用

CONGSHENHUAGAIGE,TUIJINZHENGFUZHINENGZHUANBIANDEYAOQIUKAN,DAXUEZHANGCHENGSHISHIXIANZHENGFUHONGGUAN“GUANXUE”HEGAOXIAOZIZHU“BANXUE”DESHUANGXIANGZHUANBIANDEGUANJIANSUOZAI。ZHENGFUFANGQUANSHIZHUBUDEGUOCHENG,DAXUEYOULEZIZHUQUANHOU,ZHENGFUGUANXINDESHIDAXUERUHE“ZILV”、DAXUEGUANXINDESHIRUHE“ZIQIANG”,ERZHANGCHENGSHIZILVHEZIQIANGDEJIBENBAOZHANG。

CONGXUEXIAOZISHENFAZHANXUYAOKAN,DAXUEZHANGCHENGSHIYIN“ZIZHU”ERTICHU,YIN“ZILV”ERZHIDING,YIN“ZIQIANG”ERJIAKUAI。DAXUECONGHUOQUFARENZIGEQIJIUYINGGAIYOUZHANGCHENG,DAXUEZHANGCHENGSHIYINWEI“ZIZHU”ERCHANSHENG,MEIYOULEZIZHUQUAN,YEJIUMEIYOULECUNZAIDEJICHU。

YINGGAISHUO,MUQIANWOGUOJIAQIANGDAXUEZHANGCHENGJIANSHESHISHISHANGSHIYIZHONG“BUKE”,YESHIJIANSHEXIANDAIDAXUEZHIDUDEBIRANYAOQIU。

摘自《哈尔滨工程大学报》第2009期(2014年7月11日) - 第03版:校园视点

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